The root directory, represented by “/”, is the top-level directory on the system. It contains files and subdirectories that are critical to the functioning of the system. For example:

/etc directory contains configuration files for the system. /var directory stores variable data such as log files. /root directory is the home directory for the root user. /home is where users’ home directories are typically located. /bin contains the binary file required at system bootup. /sbin same as /bin but the binaries required super user (root) privileges.

Other important directories include /opt, which is often used for installed software packages; /tmp, which is a temporary storage area; and /usr, which contains user-related data such as executables and libraries. There are also several mount points for external devices, such as /media and /mnt. Finally, the /run directory contains runtime data for processes that are currently running on the system. By understanding the purpose of each directory, you can better navigate your way around Linux.

Filesystem Hierarchy Structure  FHS  in Linux   TecAdmin - 74